More women are putting their money to work in the stock market and, when they do, they appear to be better positioned for success.
A growing body of research suggests that women who invest, either through brokerage accounts or their workplace retirement plans, earn higher portfolio returns than their male peers. Why? Surveys reveal that women are more likely to:
- Buy and hold.
- Maintain balanced portfolios.
- Remain calm during market swings.
- Save more of their income.
A recent survey by Fidelity Investments, for example, found that female investors outperform male investors by an average of 40 basis points, or 0.4 percent — a seemingly negligible difference but one that packs a punch over time.1
Using average workplace savings rates and a hypothetical salary of $50,000, a prior Fidelity survey found that women who start investing at age 22 would have $276,000 (or 15.4 percent) more socked away by age 67 than their male counterpart. That calculation uses the study findings that women typically save 9 percent of their salary annually and achieve a 6.4 percent annual rate of return, while men save 8.6 percent of their salaries each year and achieve a 6 percent annual rate of return.2
Another study by Warwick Business School, sponsored by Barclays, found female investors outperformed males by a wider margin —1.2 percent.3 And the University of California, Berkeley famously found almost two decades ago that female investors tend to outperform their male peers by just under a percentage point per year.4
Historically speaking, women have been far less likely than men to invest in stocks outside of their workplace retirement accounts.
But the COVID-19 pandemic gave women a chance to flex their financial muscles, fueled by a period of record market returns. The 2021 Fidelity survey found that 67 percent of women who earn $50,000 or more and contribute to their workplace retirement savings plan were investing outside of their retirement account during the early days of the pandemic, up significantly from 44 percent in 2018.5 Female millennials, ages 25 to 40, led the way with 71 percent declaring themselves to be an investor.
The pandemic also encouraged more women to develop and keep good financial habits, according to a more recent 2022 survey from MassMutual. Of the 25 percent of American women who said they started saving money for retirement or emergencies during the pandemic, almost all said they would continue saving after the pandemic ends.6
Despite their growing participation rate in both taxable brokerage accounts and workplace retirement plans, however, Fidelity found that only 33 percent of female investors feel confident in their ability to make investment decisions and only 35 percent felt confident that their non-retirement savings were invested appropriately.
To secure their financial future, more women need to educate themselves about the risks and potential rewards of investing, said Cindy Hounsell, president of the Women’s Institute for a Secure Retirement, (WISER).
“Women tend to live longer than men so they need more money for retirement, but they still earn less money in the workplace so there’s that gap,” she said in an interview. “Women are also more likely to end up single as they age, either through divorce or by being widowed, so they often don’t have extra help from a spouse in old age. They need to operate as if they’re going to have to [secure their financial future] on their own. Women have to learn how to save and invest effectively.”
That begins with exploring some of the strategies that are helping their peers get ahead.
The buy-and-hold mentality
For example, women are more likely to buy and hold stocks for the long haul because they focus on future goals, like retirement or college savings for their kids, rather than market performance today, according to the Fidelity study.
They are also more likely to avoid costly knee-jerk reactions to market turbulence, opting instead to stay the course when the going gets rough.
Alicia Munnell, director of the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, said in an interview that women’s ability to make an investment plan and stick with it works to their advantage.
Men, by contrast, are more likely to engage in active trading because they are focused on immediate returns. The higher transaction fees they incur reduce any gains they eke out.
A 2021 Vanguard study of defined contribution retirement plans found that women trade 40 percent less frequently than their male counterparts.7
Maintain balanced portfolios
The tendency to stay on track with their diversification decisions is another feather in the female cap.
A 2018 MassMutual survey on Women’s Retirement Risk found that women are more concerned about stock market volatility and portfolio risk than men. Some 78 percent of women, in fact, said they are either “very concerned” or “somewhat concerned” about market volatility, versus 65 percent of men. It also found that 48 percent of women were concerned about taking on too much investment risk, compared with 41 percent of men.
For many women, a balanced asset allocation that seeks to stabilize portfolio return is the answer. Indeed, the MassMutual study found women are more likely than men to describe their current investment mix as a balance of growth and preservation (42 percent vs. 32 percent), while men are more apt to describe their current mix as tilted towards growth (58 percent vs. 46 percent).
A balanced portfolio would include a mix of large capitalization, mid-capitalization, and small-capitalization stocks or mutual funds. It also includes exposure to domestic and international shares, growth and value, and fixed income, such as bonds and money market funds. A financial professional can help you determine what mix is right for you, which will depend on your age, assets, and tolerance for risk. (Learn more: Understanding your risk profile)
By comparison, male investors are more likely to overweight their portfolios in equities (stocks), a specific market sector (like energy or technology), or an individual stock, leaving their portfolio more vulnerable to market swings.
More calm, less reactive
According to automated investing service Betterment, an analysis of its clientele revealed that its female customers changed their asset allocation 20 percent less often and monitored their accounts 45 percent less frequently than its male customers. Male customers also moved their allocation to 100 percent stocks at least twice as often as women and they were six times more likely to make massive allocation changes, such as switching from 100 percent stocks to 100 percent bonds or vice versa.8
“Both the desire to perform better than a buy-and-hold strategy, and the conviction that it’s possible and worth the effort, runs far deeper in men,” said Dan Egan, Betterment’s managing director of Behavioral Finance and Investing, in a news release about the research. “They can be more competitive, even when it leaves them worse off.”
Women save better than men
Equally critical in women’s capacity to outperform male investors is the discipline with which many women save.
The most recent Vanguard research revealed women who earn less than $100,000 have participation rates in their workplace defined contribution retirement plans — such as a 401(k) — that are between 11 and 17 percentage points higher than men. Once enrolled, women earning $30,000 a year or more also saved a slightly larger percentage of their paychecks than men.9
Due to their lower incomes, however, and the increased likelihood that they will exit the workforce early to care for children or aging parents, female investors still have far less tucked away for their retirement. (Related: Savings goals)
According to Vanguard, the average 401(k) balance for women is $88,393, compared with $131,045 for men.8
Hounsell said she believes that most women are keenly aware of the financial risk they will face, which motivates them to save and to become more confident investors.
Statistically, women outlive men by nearly five years, so they need more money tucked away for living expenses during retirement. That’s hard to do on smaller incomes.
Women also incur higher medical costs as they age and are more likely to require assisted living services, particularly after their spouse passes away, said Hounsell.
Moreover, they are much more likely than men to put their careers on hold to become caregivers to children and aging parents, which sets their savings (and the size of their future Social Security benefit) back further still.
“For many women, it’s a bigger battle to build up savings, so there is this mentality that they need to be more careful with their money,” said Hounsell.
Without a plan to save and invest for growth, she said, women can easily outlive their assets.
“Women are more worried about running out of money in retirement,” said Hounsell. “They’re starting to pay more attention.”
The MassMutual survey on women and retirement found just 47 percent of pre-retired women are confident that their income will last their lifetime, compared with 64 percent of pre-retired men.
It doesn’t take an economics degree to become a successful investor. It just takes a willingness to learn.
By educating yourself about investment options and strategies, you can start building wealth with greater confidence.
Don’t be afraid to contact a financial professional along the way for guidance, which, for the record, is also something that women do better than men.
Discover more from MassMutual…
This article was originally published in March 2021. It has been updated.
1 Fidelity Investments, “2021 Women and Investing Study.” Who’s the Better Investor: Men or Women?”
2 Fidelity Investments, “Who’s the Better Investor: Men or Women?” May 18, 2017.
3 Barclays, “Are women better investors?” March 1, 2018.
4 University of California, Berkeley, “Boys Will Be Boys: Gender, Overconfidence, and Common Stock Investment,” 2001.
5 Fidelity Investments, “2021 Women and Investing Study.”
6 MassMutual, “MassMutual Winter 2022 Consumer Saving and Spending Index.”
7Vanguard, “How America Saves 2021.”
8 Betterment, “Data Suggest Women Are Better (Behaved) Investors,” March 3, 2015.
9 Vanguard, “Women versus men in DC plans,” May 2, 2019.
10 Vanguard, “How America Saves 2021.”